The R & D is defined as "creative work undertaken systematically in order to increase the stock of knowledge (including knowledge of mankind, culture and society) and to use this knowledge to new applications". The presented indicator relates to the value of the sum of gross domestic product spent on R & D for recognized companies, public institutions and private non-profit organizations and those estimated for the universities (Source: OECD/Eurostat Manual).
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Total Expenditure on Research and Development - Italy. No author.
Retrieved 19:56, Jun 19, 2013 (UTC).
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